I need to pass a color to GetRValue which accepts cardinals. However, TColor is integer and I get sometimes a range check error. Should I just trim my color to 0 if it is negative?
Negative values indicate that you are passing special color values like clWindow to GetRValue. That's a mistake.Blind sql injection parameter
A true RGB value, stored in a 32 bit integer, will never be negative. That's also a mistake because TColor does not hold an alpha channel. Learn more. Asked 8 years ago. Active 6 years, 5 months ago. Viewed 2k times. Migrate2Lazarus see my profile Migrate2Lazarus see my profile Active Oldest Votes. David Heffernan David Heffernan k 39 39 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
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Featured on Meta. Community and Moderator guidelines for escalating issues via new response…. Feedback on Q2 Community Roadmap. Triage needs to be fixed urgently, and users need to be notified upon…. Dark Mode Beta - help us root out low-contrast and un-converted bits.Ordinal types include integer, character, Boolean, enumerated, and subrange types. An ordinal type defines an ordered set of values in which each value except the first has a unique predecessor and each value except the last has a unique successor.
Further, each value has an ordinality, which determines the ordering of the type. For integer types, the ordinality of a value is the value itself. Subrange types maintain the ordinalities of their base types. For other ordinal types, by default the first value has ordinality 0, the next value has ordinality 1, and so forth.
The declaration of an enumerated type can explicitly override this default. Several predefined functions operate on ordinal values and type identifiers. The most important of them are summarized below. For example, High Byte returns because the highest value of type Byte isand Succ 2 returns 3 because 3 is the successor of 2. The standard procedures Inc and Dec increment and decrement the value of an ordinal variable. The platform-dependent integer types are transformed to fit the bit size of the current compiler platform.
Using these types whenever possible, since they result in the best performance for the underlying CPU and operating system, is desirable. The following table illustrates their ranges and storage formats for the Delphi compiler.Hurricane Love - You Are The Sun - CARDINAL SESSIONS
Platform-independent integer types always have the same size, regardless of what platform you use. In general, arithmetic operations on integers return a value of type Integerwhich is equivalent to the bit LongInt. Operations return a value of type Int64 only when performed on one or more Int64 operands. Therefore, the following code produces incorrect results:.
To get an Int64 return value in this situation, cast I as Int64 :. For more information, see Arithmetic Operators. Note: Some standard routines that take integer arguments truncate Int64 values to 32 bits.
A few routines cannot take Int64 values at all. When you increment the last value or decrement the first value of an integer type, the result wraps around the beginning or end of the range.
For example, the ShortInt type has the range If compiler range-checking is enabled, however, this code generates a runtime error.
A string constant of length 1, such as 'A', can denote a character value. The predefined function Chr returns the character value for any integer in the range of WideChar ; for example, Chr 65 returns the letter A.
I'd like to display the UInt32 value as a string. However inttostr assumes the argument is a signed Int32 so it will sometimes return a string that has the appearance of a negative value. Is there a way to convert a cardinal into its unsigned string representation?
Learn more. How to convert cardinal to unsigned string representation Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 8 months ago. Active 4 years, 8 months ago. Viewed 4k times. Using XE6. Is there not UintToStr? Which Delphi are you using? Didn't spot uinttostr, and I've been looking Good, you can make that an answer. IntToStr has an Int64 version, not just an Integer version. Also, Delphi and later have an actual UInt32 type, you should use that instead of Cardinal.
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Email Required, but never shown.The Delphi Help Agrees to this point. I am wondering if the IntToStr function is part of my problem. Any positive suggestions are welcome. By the way: Are there any Delphi Help files more current than 95s? Thank You. Anatoly Podgoretsk Delphi Developer. Lawrence Leary??? I think only own IntToStr function can helps you. Possible write with Asm and Pascal too.Essay on my participation in a dramatic performance
Very pitty that Borland do not realize 32 bit unsigned. Dave Bol Delphi Developer. Actually, you didn't say what your problem was. Cardinal is not the same, though the help files do not make this immediately clear.
If you look at the help files for D2. This is not what you seem to want. Longint is the range from towhich is 32bit with all values starting with a 1 in the highest order bit being interpreted as -ve values. IntToStr works with a long integer, so it will apply the convention I just mentioned when it does the conversion. Hope this sheds some light. It is wrong. It is strange because we have 8 bit signed and unsigned, 16 bit too. Only 32 bit is signed.
And is big problem in any cases. Some basic operation can made with small pieces of assembler function or third party library. What are need. It is not difficult to write manually. Very pity that Borland decide no realize 32 but unsigned. Sorry, in 32bit land integer is a 32bit value, a double word.
Dave Other Threads 1. Anatoly Podgoretsk. Dave Bol. Other Threads 1. Arithmetic operation with cardinal 4. Show Float last 4 bytes as cardinal? Negative Cardinals??Delphi's programming language is an example of a strongly typed language. This means that all variables must be of some type. A type is essentially a name for a kind of data. When we declare a variable, we must specify its type, which determines the set of values the variable can hold and the operations that can be performed on it.
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Many of Delphi's built-in data types, such as Integer or Stringcan be refined or combined to create new data types. In this article, we'll see how to create custom ordinal data types in Delphi.
There are also two other classes of user-defined ordinal types: enumerated types and subrange types. In any ordinal types, it must make sense to move backward or forward to the next element. For example, real types are not ordinal because moving backward or forward doesn't make sense. The question "What is the next real after 2. For example, High Byte returns because the highest value of type Byte isand Succ 2 returns 3 because 3 is the successor of 2.
Note: If we try to use Succ when at the last element Delphi will generate a run-time exception if the range checking is on. The easiest way to create a new example of an ordinal type is simply to list a bunch of elements in some order. The values have no inherent meaning, and their ordinality follows the sequence in which the identifiers are listed.
In other words, an enumeration is a list of values. The primary purpose of an enumerated data type is to make clear what data your program will manipulate. An enumerated type is really just a shorthand way of assigning sequential values to constants. Delphi allows us to work with the elements in an enumerated type using an index that comes from the order that they were listed in.
The functions listed in the table before let us, for example, use Succ Friday to "go to" Saturday. The Delphi Visual Component Library uses enumerated types in many places. For example, the position of a form is defined as follows:. We use Position through the Object Inspector to get or set the size and placement of the form.
Simply put, a subrange type represents a subset of the values in another ordinal type. In general, we can define any subrange by starting with any ordinal type including a previously defined enumerated type and using a double dot:.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have to pack and unpack a Cardinal into four one-byte fields in Delphi Can anyone show me how to write these two functions? The const and out keywords are just for clarity. If they interfere with inline assembly, then I can remove them.
If you don't need the bytes to be byte variables, you can do even trickier things, like declaring. If you absolutely must, you can put this into a function, but it's trivial enough not to bother with the overhead of a function call. EDIT To illustrate the efficiency of the variant record approach consider the following assuming you're reading your image from a Stream.
PS: Instead of an arbitrarily generic Bytes array, you could explicitly name each Byte in the variant record as Red, Green, Blue, and whatever the fourth Byte means.
The speed depends heavily on what you are doing with the bytes. If you want to get at the higher order two bytes, you do not want to access those directly. Because you'll get an unaligned memory access, wasting CPU-cycles and messing up with the cache. Making it faster All this stuff messing with individual bytes is really not needed. If you want to be really fast, work with 4 bytes at a time. If you want to process your pixels really fast use inline MMX assembly and work with 8 bytes at a time.
Really really fast If you want it really really fast, like or x faster than MMX can, your videocard can do that. Learn more. Packing and unpacking a Cardinal into four bytes Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 11 months ago. Active 8 years, 11 months ago. Viewed 2k times. I'm doing this across all the pixels of a large image, so I need it to be fast! RRUZ k 13 13 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
RobertFrank RobertFrank 6, 8 8 gold badges 47 47 silver badges 91 91 bronze badges. Paste some code and maybe we can give you some fast assembler that can fix your need for speed. I recommend you avoid inline assembly unless you absolutely have to. It will limit your portability unnecessarily consider bit Delphi is already in beta.
You can actually do this without the functions.
And as Johan points out, you can probably do whatever you're trying to achieve without even decomposing into individual bytes. Active Oldest Votes. There are many ways. Andreas Rejbrand Andreas Rejbrand Delphi Basics. Standard components. Integer and floating point numbers. Delphi provides many different data types for storing numbers. Your choice depends on the data you want to handle. In general, smaller number capacities mean smaller variable sizes, and faster calculations.
Ideally, you should use a type that comfortably copes with all possible values of the data it will store. For example, a Byte type can comfortably hold the age of a person - no-one to date has lived as long as years.
With decimal numbers, the smaller capacity types also have less precision. Less numbers of significant digits. Let us look at the different types:. All other type sizes are guaranteed. Number variables can be assigned from constants, other numeric variables, and expressions:. Number calculations, or expressions, have a number of primitive operators available:. When using these multiple operators in one expression, you should use round brackets to wrap around sub-expressions to ensure that the result is obtained.
This is illustrated in the examples below:. Delphi provides many builtin functions and procedures that can perform numeric calculations.
Some examples are given below - click on any to discover more. Note that these routines are stored in Units that are shipped with Delphi, and which form part of the standard delphi Run Time Library. You will need to include a reference to the Unit in order to use it the code example provided with each gives the unit name and shows how to refer to it.
Delphi also provides routines that convert numbers into strings. This is often useful for display purposes. Finally, Delphi provides string to number conversion utilities. Here are some examples:.
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